# Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Balance Sheet & Calculation

When accountants decide to use a different rate for each age category of receivables, they prepare an aging schedule. An aging schedule classifies accounts receivable according to how long they have been outstanding and uses a different uncollectibility percentage rate for each age category. In Exhibit 1, the aging schedule https://investrecords.com/the-importance-of-accurate-bookkeeping-for-law-firms-a-comprehensive-guide/ shows that the older the receivable, the less likely the company is to collect it. The desired \$6,000 ending credit balance in the Allowance for Doubtful Accounts serves as a “target” in making the adjustment. On the income statement, Rankin would match the bad debt expense against sales revenues in the period.

Contra assets are still recorded along with other assets, though their natural balance is opposite of assets. While assets have natural debit balances and increase with a debit, contra assets have natural credit balance and law firm bookkeeping increase with a credit. The second method of estimating the allowance for doubtful accounts is the aging method. All outstanding accounts receivable are grouped by age, and specific percentages are applied to each group.

## What is Allowance for Doubtful Accounts?

Rather than waiting to see exactly how payments work out, the company will debit a bad debt expense and credit allowance for doubtful accounts. Many businesses use a more refined version of the percentage-of-receivables approach, known as the Aging of receivables approach. This approach estimates bad debt expenses based on the balance in accounts receivable, but it also considers the uncollectible time period for each account. Hence, the income statement is delaying the reporting of bad debts expense on its income statement until an account receivable is actually written off as uncollectible. While both bad debt expense accounting and allowance for doubtful accounts signify the same thing from a business perspective, the accounting world treats them very differently.

As a small business owner, you take a giant leap of faith every time you extend credit to your customers. Even with the most stringent analysis of a customer’s ability to pay, there’s going to be a time when a customer (or two) doesn’t pay what they owe. But then realizes that only \$100,000, or 1%, was actually bad debt, then the next month it will adjust the percentage to lower the amount of expected bad debt.

## Why Use an Allowance for Doubtful Accounts?

In turn, these figures help CFOs efficiently project budgets and plan working capital needs. Upgrading to a paid membership gives you access to our extensive collection of plug-and-play Templates designed to power your performance—as well as CFI’s full course catalog and accredited Certification Programs. (2) Adjust the Allowance for Bad Debts account to the balance calculated in step (1). Note that if a company believes it may recover a portion of a balance, it can write off a portion of the account.

• Then all of the category estimates are added together to get one total estimated uncollectible balance for the period.
• For the taxpayer, this means that if a business sells an item on credit in October 2021 and determines that it is uncollectible in June 2022, it must show the effects of the bad debt when it files its 2022 tax return.
• For instance, if all of your customers stick to similar credit cycles, the historical percentage method will help you calculate a realistic allowance for doubtful accounts.
• The doubtful account balance is a result of a combination of the above two methods.
• The allowance can accumulate across accounting periods and may be adjusted based on the balance in the account.

It is an estimate of the amount of accounts receivable (AR) that a business expects to become bad debt. Bad debt expense is an income statement account and carries a debit balance. It indicates how much bad debt the company actually incurred during the current accounting period. For the taxpayer, this means that if a business sells an item on credit in October 2021 and determines that it is uncollectible in June 2022, it must show the effects of the bad debt when it files its 2022 tax return. This application probably violates the matching principle, but if the ATO did not have this policy, there would typically be a significant amount of manipulation on company tax returns.

## Method 1: Accounts receivable aging

These percentages are multiplied by total sales in each customer category, then the resulting three separate dollar amounts are added up and converted to a percentage based on the total sales amount. Most balance sheets report them separately by showing the gross A/R balance and then subtracting the allowance for doubtful accounts balance, resulting in the “Accounts Receivable, net” line item. The allowance for doubtful accounts is then used to approximate the percentage of “uncollectible” accounts receivable (A/R). Credit sales all come with some degree of risk that the customer might not hold up their end of the transaction (i.e. when cash payments left unmet). Management may disclose its method of estimating the allowance for doubtful accounts in its notes to the financial statements. If you have a lot of accounts receivable activity, it’s helpful to adjust your ADA balance monthly, but if the activity is limited, a quarterly adjustment should be sufficient.

• When it comes to bad debt and ADA, there are a few scenarios you may need to record in your books.
• This method works best for companies with a small number of customers who’ve been doing business with you for a while.
• The company would then reinstate the account that was initially written off on August 3.
• You calculate your allowance using the accounts receivable aging method shown above and decide your allowance should be \$5,750.
• Moreover, using the direct write-off method is prohibited for reporting purposes if the company’s business model is characterized by a significant amount of credit sales (i.e. paid on credit) with large A/R balances.
• Here a business takes into account both payment dues and the time it has been due for.